Examples of the diversity of resource use within the Higher Nematinae. (a) Female of Pristiphora mollis ovipositing on a leaf of Vaccinium myrtillus. (b) Larva of Amauronematus amplus feeding on Betula pubescens. (c) Colony of Pristiphora erichsonii larvae on Larix sp. (d) Larva of Phyllocolpa leucosticta inside opened leaf fold on Salix caprea. (e) Larva of Pristiphora angulata feeding on flowers of Spiraea chamaedryfolia. (f) Larva of Pontania pustulator inside opened leaf gall on Salix phylicifolia. (g) Melastola sp. larva inside opened berry of Vaccinium parvifolium. The locations of these exemplar species on the phylogeny of Higher Nematinae are indicated by letters in Fig. 3. (Photographs by T. Nyman).